This report analyses the security situation in Syria, focusing in particular on the situation for the civilian population. The reference period is 2018 and the first half of 2019. Some additional information was added during the finalisation of this report in response to feedback received during the quality control process until 18 September 2019.
After finalisation of the content of the report by Landinfo, during the editing phase, significant developments to the security situation occurred, which did not follow recent trends in the conflict. Because of the significant nature of these developments, having an impact on the content of this report, EASO agreed with Landinfo to include a separate chapter (Chapter 6, New developments), with a short overview of information up until 23 October 2019. Because of the early stage and volatile nature of such developments in the conflict, information on this will have to be updated on short notice. EASO plans such update by spring 2020.
The report starts with a brief introduction to the background to the civil war, the belligerents in the conflict and who controls which parts of the country. It goes on to describe the security situation in different parts of Syria. To illustrate this, the report presents estimates of the number of people killed and the number of conflict-related violent incidents. A description is also provided of how the war has been fought, what types of weapons and war tactics the warring parties have used, and how this has affected the civilian population. The report does not address how the government or other belligerents treat specific ethnic, political or social groups.
In this report, the term security is used to mean freedom from violence. Violence is the intentional use of, or threat of, physical force against another person. The term civilian is used in contrast to military and refers to persons who are neither members of armed groups nor participate in combat.
EASO would like to acknowledge the Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre, Landinfo, as the drafter of this report.
Due to significant developments to the security situation taking place during the finalisation of the report (October 2019), EASO drafted Chapter 6 of the report documenting these changes. Chapter 6 has not been reviewed by the departments and organisations acknowledged below.
The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report together with EASO:
Denmark, Danish Immigration Service (DIS)
ACCORD, the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation
This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology (June 2019).