This report concerns the Syrian territories, which have been outside the control of the Government of Syria (GoS) and returned to GoS control through so-called reconciliation agreements. It explores how these agreements were reached, their consequences for the population of the respective areas, as well as how GoS exerts its control in the aftermath. Not all areas/cities are included, but rather a selection that serves to illustrate the different developments.
The report covers the period from 2014 until October 2019. The drafting of this report was finalised on 1 October 2019. Some additional information was added during the finalisation of this report in response to feedback received during the quality control process until 28 October 2019.
This report starts with a brief introduction to the areas covered and then describes the so-called reconciliation-agreements, which constitute the formal framework for reintegrating these formerly opposition-held areas into the state. It describes the different variants of the agreements, and their main implications for the population.
It then examines in some detail how these agreements have worked out in a number of towns and districts, highlighting both similarities and differences in their implementation and the reasons for these. The last chapter provides a couple of examples of recaptured areas where no reconciliation-agreement governs their reintegration into the state.
The situation in Syria remains unstable, even in parts of the country where the state has been in control throughout the conflict and in areas formerly held by the opposition. This should be borne in mind while reading the report, as this provides an important insight into the strategy of the Syrian state for dealing with these areas, and the impacts on the population.
This report was drafted by the Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre, Landinfo.
The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report:
The Netherlands, Office for Country Information and Language Analysis, Ministry of Justice
ACCORD, the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation
This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology (June 2019).