EASO COI Report. Actors of protection

Nederlands

The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the structure, functions, and effectiveness of the justice and security sectors of the government of Iraq, in their role as state actors of protection. The primary focus of the report is on the state’s functioning in protecting and guaranteeing the protection of its citizens in the context of civilian security and justice. The central institutions that fulfil critical functions such as the Ministries of Interior and Defence, as well as the judiciary are examined in terms of capacity, mandate, effectiveness and integrity. Further institutions, such as the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights are also examined. Given the distinct governance of Kurdistan, institutions in that region were also included as part of this report. Given the large-scale broad proliferation of state-aligned militias, non-aligned groups and other security actors in Iraq post-ISIL, this report is limited to an overview of the main actors of the state.

This report was co-drafted by the EASO COI sector with research contributions from the COI unit of the Romanian General Inspectorate for Immigration, Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Furthermore, the following national asylum and migration departments have contributed by reviewing this report together with EASO:

Estonia, Estonian Police and Border Guard Board

Slovakia, Migration Office, Department of Documentation and Foreign Cooperation.

Additionally, the following individual expert reviewed this report:

Dr. Geraldine Chatelard, Contemporary Historian and Social Anthropologist. Dr. Chatelard is an independent consultant and social scientist currently associated with the Iraq (Erbil) branch of the Institut français du Proche-Orient (French Institute in the Near East). For the past 15 years, she has conducted research and written on migration and displacement issues in the region, including the socioeconomic and humanitarian situation in Iraq. Since 2014, she spends on average one third of her time conducting field research in various regions of Iraq (Kurdistan, Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Basra and other southern governorates, and more recently Mosul) including on forced displacement, the return and reintegration of migrants and refugees, and the politics of religious identities.

The drafting of this report was finalised in November 2018.

This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology.

Beleid

Door een toename in geweld- en terreurdaden is de veiligheids– en mensenrechtensituatie in Irak sinds het voorjaar van 2013 verslechterd. Naar aanleiding van het grondoffensief dat IS sinds juni 2014 in Irak voert, is de situatie verder geëscaleerd.  Dit heeft geleid tot een bloedig intern gewapend conflict. Burgers worden hierbij geviseerd door de strijdende partijen omwille van etnische, religieuze of politieke redenen.  In de loop van 2015 kwam IS meer en meer onder druk te staan in verschillende regio’s in Irak en slaagden de Iraakse veiligheidstroepen, de sjiitische milities en de Koerdische peshmerga er in om IS uit een deel van de veroverde gebieden te verdrijven. In 2016 werd IS verder teruggedrongen en werden grote stukken van het gebied onder controle van IS terug ingenomen door regeringstroepen. De herovering van gebieden bezet door IS had een duidelijk merkbare impact op de veiligheidssituatie in Irak in het algemeen. Ook in 2017 is er sprake van een verdere daling van het geweld.

Uit de beschikbare informatie blijkt dat het geweldsniveau, de impact van het terreurgeweld, en de gevolgen van het offensief van IS nog steeds regionaal erg verschillend zijn. De sterk regionale verschillen typeren de veiligheids- en mensenrechtensituatie in Irak. Concreet betekent dit dat de situatie in het Noord- en Zuid-Irak verschillend is van de situatie in Centraal-Irakese provincies.

Land: 
Irak
Nieuw adres CGVS