The purpose of this report is to provide relevant context information in view of the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection. Among others, the report is intended to inform the development of Country Guidance on Somalia (2022). The report provides background information and mapping of relevant state and non-state actors/conflict dynamics in Somalia, upon which subsequent reports will build. These forthcoming EASO COI reports will focus on the Somalia Security Situation, Targeted Profiles and Key Socio Economic Indicators and are due to be published later in 2021. This report provides an overview of the main state and non-state actors in the Somali context, including their armed forces, at federal as well as at member state level. Details on relevant dynamics, territorial control/influence, governance as well as access to justice are also provided. Finally, the report provides an overview about the human rights conduct and abuses of main armed groups/security forces.
This report was jointly written by the COI Sector of EASO, together with contributions from France. EASO would like to acknowledge the Information, Documentation and Research Division (DIDR) COI unit of the French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless People (Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides – OFPRA), as the co-drafter of this report.
The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report, together with EASO:
- Austria, Federal Office for Immigration and Asylum, Country of Origin Information Department, Africa Desk
- Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD).
The drafting of this report was finalised on 14 May 2021; however the reference period of the report covers the period 2020 – 30 April 2021, or earlier whenever relevant. Any event taking place after this date is not included in this report. Some additional information was added during the finalisation phase in response to feedback received during the quality control process, until 18 June 2021.
This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).
Na de val van president Siad Barre in 1991 is Somalië in chaos gedompeld. Verschillende autoriteiten hebben elkaar sinds 2000 opgevolgd. Somaliland en Puntland zijn in de jaren ‘90 de facto onafhankelijk geworden van de federale staat Somalië. De algemene veiligheidssituatie in Somalië wordt grotendeels bepaald door een langdurig aanslepend intern gewapend conflict, waardoor zeer veel Somaliërs intern ontheemd zijn of hun toevlucht genomen hebben in het buitenland. Voor de beoordeling van de nood aan internationale bescherming houdt de commissaris-generaal er rekening mee dat er fundamentele verschillen bestaan tussen de situatie in Mogadishu, Centraal- en Zuid-Somalië enerzijds en de situatie in de Somaliland en Puntland anderzijds.